Types of Acne

 Acne Vulgaris
Acne vulgaris is another name for common acne. This is the type of acne that mainly affects adolescents but may persist and become more severe as one reaches adulthood.
Mild to Moderate acne vulgaris is characterized by the following lesions:
Whiteheads
Whiteheads result when a pore is completely blocked, trapping sebum, bacteria, and dead skin cells, causing a white appearance on the surface. Whiteheads have a shorter life span than blackheads.
Blackheads
Blackheads result when a pore is only partially blocked allowing some of the trapped sebum, bacteria, and dead skin cells to slowly drain to the surface. The dark color associated with its appearance is not caused by dirt. Rather, it is a reaction of the skin’s own pigment, melanin, reacting with the oxygen in the air. As a whitehead has a short life cycle, a blackhead is a firmer structure, and can often take a long time to clear.
Papules
Papules are inflamed, red, tender bumps with no head.
Pustules
A pustule is similar to a whitehead, but is inflamed, and appears as a red circle with a white or yellow center. (This is what is commonly called a “zit.”)
Severe acne vulgaris can be distinguished by the presence of nodules and cysts:
Nodules
As opposed to the lesions mentioned above, nodular acne consists of acne spots which are much larger, can be quite painful and can sometimes last for months. Nodules are large, hard bumps under the skin’s surface. Scarring is common. Absolutely do not attempt to squeeze such a lesion. You may cause severe trauma to the skin and the lesion may last for months longer than it normally would have left untouched.
Cysts
An acne cyst is often similar in appearance to a nodule, but it is pus-filled, and has been described as having a diameter of 2 inches or more across and is often very painful. Again, scarring is common with cystic acne. Squeezing an acne cyst may cause a deeper infection and more painful inflammation which will last much longer than if you had left it alone.
Adult Acne
Adult acne is a form of acne vulgaris that can affect adults over 30 years of age. Those who had no problems with acne as a teenager have found that they are having breakouts. But because acne is normally associated with the hormonal fluctuations that occur during puberty, its appearance in an adult should be investigated to determine the underlying causes–especially if it appears for the first time in adulthood.
The following are at least three reasons why acne appears after 30 years of Often the acne that one had as an adolescent resurfaces later in adulthood. It is not always clear why this happens, but it is one reason for its presence in adults.
 In women, acne often reappears during pregnancy where there had been no activity for months, if not years. This could also be true in the case of woman during their menstrual period.
 Thirdly, acne can appear in adults for the first time who have never had it before. Now with this third reason, it might be more obvious that something unusual is going on and it might be wise to talk to a dermatologist or at least your family physician.
With some reasons established, we can now mention some of the possible causes of adult acne:
 Medication. As has been stated previously, some medications can induce acne. Anabolic steroids, antiage:
epileptic medications, anti-tuberculosis drugs rifampin and isoniazid, lithium and medications that contain iodine.
 Chronic physical pressure on the skin. Whether chaffing from wearing a helmet or carrying a backpack, such pressure against the skin can lead breakouts. (See acne mechanica)
 Chlorinated industrial chemicals. Working in certain types of industrial environments can cause acne-like symptoms or even chloracne, an occupational skin disorder caused by prolonged exposure to chemicals like chlorinated dioxins.
 Metabolic changes. With changes in the body’s hormonal balance, such as those present during pregnancy or menstruation can produce acne in adults.
Rosacea
Though often misdiagnosed as acne, rosacea is, in fact, not acne. Rosacea affects thousands of people in the U.S. alone, mostly those over the age of 30. It generally appears as a red rash confined to the cheeks, nose, forehead and chin. This redness is often accompanied by bumps, pimples, and skin blemishes–the reason it is so commonly mistaken for acne. Further, this redness is also linked to the fact that blood vessels may become more visible on the skin. Rosacea has been shown to be more prevalent in women than in men, but often if found in men it tends to be more severe. If you are seeking treatment and you think it may actually be rosacea, you need to be aware that the treatments differ quite a bit from those used in the care of acne vulgaris.

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